Well done (for someone of your gender)! Experimental evidence of teachers’ stereotype-based shifting standards for test grading and elaborated feedback

Publikation: Beiträge in ZeitschriftenZeitschriftenaufsätzeForschungbegutachtet


In three experiments (Ns = 327/137/210), we investigated whether test grades and elaborated feedback in a stereotypically male (Math) and a stereotypically female subject (German) are biased by the student’s gender. For this purpose, pre-service teachers graded and provided written feedback on tests which were allegedly from boys or girls. In addition, participants’ belief in stereotypes was measured in Study 1 and 2 and manipulated in Study 3 to test its moderating role. A meta-analysis across the three studies confirmed the following pattern: a small to moderate stereotype-contrasting grading bias, if the evaluators endorsed stereotypes, but no bias if they did not. Tests from the gender that, according to the stereotype, is weaker in the domain, were graded better. Study 1 and 3 further showed that the supposedly weaker gender received more elaborated feedback. The results are discussed in terms of shifting standards and previous findings in gender bias in school.

Titel in ÜbersetzungGut gemacht (für jemanden deines Geschlechts)! Experimentelle Belege für stereotypenbedingt wechselnde Referenzstandards von Lehrkräften bei der Benotung und beim Feedback
ZeitschriftSocial Psychology of Education
Seiten (von - bis)809-834
Anzahl der Seiten26
PublikationsstatusErschienen - 06.2021

Bibliographische Notiz

Funding Information:
The authors would like to note that this line of research was initiated by our dear friend and colleague Jessica Bilz, who unexpectedly passed away before the first study was completed. We are continuing this research with her on our minds and in our hearts. In addition, we thank Lara Moen, Janina Höpfner, and Morzal Goia for their help with preparation and data collection.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s).


  • Psychologie - Bildung, Gender and diversity, Notengebung, Stereotype, Feedback

Zugehörige Projekte

  • Shifting standards for boys and girls in the classroom

    Projekt: Forschung