The ten principles of green sample preparation

Research output: Journal contributionsScientific review articlesResearch


  • Ángela I. López-Lorente
  • Francisco Pena-Pereira
  • Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard
  • Vânia G. Zuin
  • Sibel A. Ozkan
  • Elefteria Psillakis

The ten principles of GSP are presented with the aim of establishing a road map toward the development of overall greener analytical methodologies. Paramount aspects for greening sample preparation and their interconnections are identified and discussed. These include the use of safe solvents/reagents and materials that are renewable, recycled and reusable, minimizing waste generation and energy demand, and enabling high sample throughput, miniaturization, procedure simplification/automation, and operator's safety. Further, the importance of applying green metrics for assessing the greenness of sample preparation methods is highlighted, next to the contribution of GSP in achieving the broader goal of sustainability. Green sample preparation is sample preparation. It is not a new subdiscipline of sample preparation but a guiding principle that promotes sustainable development through the adoption of environmentally benign sample preparation procedures.

Original languageEnglish
Article number116530
JournalTrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 01.03.2022

Bibliographical note

This article is based upon work from COST Action CA 16215 , supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology , ). This article is also based upon work from the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) project No 2021-015-2-500 “Greenness of official standard sample preparation methods” and work from the Sample Preparation Study Group and Network , supported by the Division of Analytical Chemistry of the European Chemical Society .

    Research areas

  • Automation, Green analytical chemistry, Green sample preparation, Green solvents, Miniaturization, Sustainable development
  • Chemistry