Inclusive conservation and the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework: Tensions and prospects

Research output: Journal contributionsJournal articlesResearchpeer-review


  • Christopher M. Raymond
  • Erik Andersson
  • Riley Andrade
  • Alberto Arroyo Schnell
  • Barbara Battioni Romanelli
  • Anna Filyushkina
  • Devin J. Goodson
  • Andra Horcea-Milcu
  • Dana N. Johnson
  • Rose Keller
  • Jan J. Kuiper
  • Veronica Lo
  • María D. López-Rodríguez
  • Hug March
  • Marc Metzger
  • Elisa Oteros-Rozas
  • Evan Salcido
  • My Sellberg
  • William Stewart
  • Isabel Ruiz-Mallén
  • Tobias Plieninger
  • Carena J. van Riper
  • Peter H. Verburg
  • Magdalena M. Wiedermann

The draft Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework commits to achievement of equity and justice outcomes and represents a “relational turn” in how we understand inclusive conservation. Although “inclusivity” is drawn on as a means to engage diverse stakeholders, widening the framing of inclusivity can create new tensions with regard to how to manage protected areas. We first offer a set of tensions that emerge in the light of the relational turn in biodiversity conservation. Drawing on global case examples applying multiple methods of inclusive conservation, we then demonstrate that, by actively engaging in the interdependent phases of recognizing hybridity, enabling conditions for reflexivity and partnership building, tensions can not only be acknowledged but softened and, in some cases, reframed when managing for biodiversity, equity, and justice goals. The results can improve stakeholder engagement in protected area management, ultimately supporting better implementation of global biodiversity targets.

Original languageEnglish
JournalOne Earth
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)252-264
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 18.03.2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
ENVISION was funded through the 2017–2018 Belmont Forum and BiodivERsA joint call for research proposals, under the BiodivScen ERA-Net COFUND program, and with the support of the following national funders: the Swedish Research Council for Sustainable Development ( FORMAS, 2018-02429 ); the Federal Ministry of Education and Research ( BMBF ) ( FKZ:01LC1806A ), Germany; the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research ( NWO ); the National Science Foundation ( 1854767 ); a Cooperative Agreement with the US National Park Service ( P18AC00175 ); the University of Illinois Campus Research Board ( RB19119 ); and the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación , Spain. E.O.-R. has been funded by Juan de la Cierva Incorporation Fellowship of the Ministry of Science Innovation and Universities ( IJCI-2017-34334 ). I.R.-M. gratefully acknowledges support from grant RYC-2015-17676 funded by MCIN /AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and by “ESF Investing in your future.” J.J.K. received support from the Swedish Research Council for Sustainable Development FORMAS ( 2019-01648 ). C.M.R. also received support from the VIVA-PLAN project, funded by FORMAS (2018-00175).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s)

    Research areas

  • biodiversity conservation, ecosystem services, equity, inclusive conservation, plural valuation, protected area management, values