Essential ecosystem service variables for monitoring progress towards sustainability

Research output: Journal contributionsJournal articlesResearchpeer-review


Global frameworks to guide consistent monitoring of changes in human–nature interactions across space and time are needed to better understand how healthy ecosystems support societies and to inform policy design. Monitoring Essential Ecosystem Service Variables (EESVs) can provide a comprehensive picture of how links between nature and people are changing. A first proposed set of EESV classes comprises: ecological supply, anthropogenic contribution, demand, use, instrumental values, and relational values. Development of specific indicators of these classes for three exemplary ecosystem services (food from fisheries, crop pollination and wildlife viewing) confirms their readiness for global operationalization. The EESV classes will advance our ability to monitor progress towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.
Original languageEnglish
Article number101152
JournalCurrent Opinion in Environmental Sustainability
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 01.02.2022

Bibliographical note

Part of special issue: SI: Open Issue 2022. Edited by Opha Pauline Dube, Victor Galaz, William Solecki

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier B.V.

Funding Information:
The authors would like to thank the continued support from GEO BON to the GEO BON-ES team, through online work as well as hands-on meetings. Consultations have also been held in the context of the meetings of the Programme for Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS). The contribution of IRG was partly covered by the ECOPOTENTIAL project (Contract No. 641762) funded under the Horizon 2020 Programme by the European Commission .

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier B.V.