Sources of Individual Differences in L2 Narrative Production: The Contribution of Input, Processing, and Output Anxiety

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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive task complexity and individual differences in input, processing, and output anxiety (IPOA) on L2 narrative production. The participants were enrolled in a bilingual secondary educational program. They performed two narrative tasks in speech and writing. The participants' level of anxiety was assessed using the IPOA scale (MacIntyre and Gardner 1994). The results demonstrate that spoken and written modalities are influenced differently by anxiety with the impact of output anxiety being significantly stronger in speech than in writing. Another important finding was that input and processing anxiety had both facilitating and debilitating effects on learners' L2 output. As regards the effect of task complexity on participants' narratives, the findings suggest that the different stages of language production need to be taken into account when categorizing tasks on the basis of the cognitive load they impose on learners.
Original languageEnglish
JournalApplied Linguistics
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)155-174
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - 01.04.2016