Elements of Schwartz’s Model in the WVS: How Do They Relate to Other Cultural Models?

Research output: Journal contributionsJournal articlesResearchpeer-review


Recently Kaasa (2021) has developed a Cultural Models Synthesis Scheme (CMSS) merging together the cultural models of Hofstede, Schwartz and Inglehart. However, this theoretical framework still needs to be complemented by an empirical analysis. This exploratory study focuses on the Schwartz’s model using the ten-item battery in the World Values Survey (WVS) inspired by his questionnaire. We empirically position Schwartz’s items into the theoretical CMSS by the means of the empirical framework of Kaasa and Minkov (2022) that already includes Inglehart’s dimensions and Minkov’s (2018) revision of Hofstede’s model. The results support the placements of Schwartz’s dimensions in the CMSS. However, the results also show serious inconsistencies and contradictions regarding the keywords associated to some Schwartz’s dimensions. We highlight the need to be careful about which keywords and question wordings capture the core of those dimensions and to consider the accuracy of the names of dimension. We show that some keywords previously associated with a particular pole of the mastery versus harmony and hierarchy versus egalitarianism, might, in fact, tap aspects of the opposite pole. We also propose using the term ‘conformity’ instead of ‘harmony’. We conclude from these insights that cross-mapping different cultural models is an exercise with significant intellectual payoff.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCross-Cultural Research
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)431-471
Number of pages41
Publication statusPublished - 12.2023

Bibliographical note

The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This work was supported by the Eesti Teadusagentuur (PRG380).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 SAGE Publications.

    Research areas

  • cultural dimensions, cultural models, cultural models synthesis scheme, Schwartz’s model
  • Politics