Student Gender and Teachers' Grading and Written Feedback on Math or Language Assignments

Aktivität: Vorträge und GastvorlesungenKonferenzvorträgeForschung

Susanne Narciss - Sprecher*in

Carolin Schuster - Sprecher*in

    Purpose and FrameworkThere are robust gender differences in seeking, attending to and processing evaluative feedback (Author, 2014; Paper 1). One contributing factor might be teachers’ gender-typed perceptions of student achievements and their ways of evaluating boys and girls (e.g., Upadyaya & Eccles, 2014; Hofer, 2015). We present two studies designed to address two main questions: Does gender influence teachers’ grades and written feedback in math and language, such that teachers expect more from students and thus grade them more harshly in stereotypically gender-congruent domains and provide less written feedback in “non-congruent” domains? Are any differences conditional upon teachers’ gender stereotype endorsement and motivation to be non-prejudiced?MethodsIn two experimental studies, preservice teachers graded student assignments in mathematics and German and provided written feedback comments. Gender was manipulated by assigning male and female names. We also assessed teacher gender stereotype endorsement and motivation to be non-prejudiced. Assignment items were based on school curricula and items in national studies of math and German proficiency (VERA-Test-Items). Performance across conditions was designed to reflect a moderate level of proficiency; number and types of errors were kept as similar as possible. In Study 1 (N = 223) participants graded and commented on an assignment ostensibly from third-graders; we manipulated student gender and domain between participants. Study 2 (N = 130) used a within-subject design to examine whether the same teachers responded differently to boys and girls. Teachers graded either math or German assignments of four students (2 girls, and 2 boys in fourth grade).ResultsIn Study 1 teachers did not grade boys and girls differently. However, as predicted, in German, gender and stereotype endorsement interacted, such that teachers who believed more strongly that girls are better at language graded girls more harshly than boys. There was a non-significant tendency in the opposite direction for higher stereotype endorsement to be associated with harsher grading of boys in math. In Study 2 a significant effect for gender whereby teachers graded boys significantly more harshly in math was moderated by a significant interaction with motivation to be non-prejudiced: participants who were more motivated to be non-prejudiced gave higher grades to girls. In Study 1, but not Study 2, girls received more feedback in math and boys more in German. Feedback also varied as a function of teacher grading: in the case of high and low grades, comments were short and global, while for intermediate grades comments were more elaborated. SignificanceDiscussion will focus on the role of teachers’ beliefs in their differential treatment of boys and girls, on ways to modify such beliefs, and on the benefits and costs of biased grades and written feedback for students’ self-views and learning. For example, elaborated feedback is useful for learning, but might also convey that there is much room for improvement. Conversely, brief feedback might convey that the teacher does not expect improvement. Grading students more harshly and providing more elaborated feedback in stereotypically gender-congruent versus incongruent domains might thus influence students’ domain-specific self-concepts and learning.

    Sprecherin: Susanne Narciss


    Annual Meeting of American Educational Research Assiciation - AERA 2018: "The Dreams, Possibilities, and Necessity of Public Education."


    New York, USA / Vereinigte Staaten

    Veranstaltung: Konferenz