Sensor Fusion for Power Line Sensitive Monitoring and Load State Estimation

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This paper deals with a specific approach to fault detection in transformer systems using the extended Kalman filter (EKF). Specific faults are investigated in power lines where a transformer is connected and only the primary electrical quantities, input voltage, and current are measured. Faults can occur in either the primary or secondary winding of the transformer. Two EKFs are proposed for fault detection. The first EKF estimates the voltage, current, and electrical load resistance of the secondary winding using measurements of the primary winding. The model of the transformer used is known as mutual inductance. For a short circuit in the secondary winding, the observer generates a signal indicating a fault. The second EKF is designed for harmonic detection and estimates the amplitude and frequency of the primary winding voltage. This contribution focuses on mathematical methods useful for galvanic decoupled soft sensing and fault detection. Moreover, the contribution emphasizes how EKF observers play a key role in the context of sensor fusion, which is characterized by merging multiple lines of information in an accurate conceptualization of data and their reconciliation with the measurements. Simulations demonstrate the efficiency of the fault detection using EKF observers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7173
Issue number16
Number of pages18
Publication statusPublished - 14.08.2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was partially supported by the Czech Science Foundation under the project No. 23-04676J on Modelling, control and experiments; and ERASMUS+ programme organized at the College of Polytechnics Jihlava and realized at the Leuphana University of Lueneburg.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.

    Research areas

  • fault detection, soft sensing, state estimation of electrical systems, transformers
  • Engineering