Global emission inventories for C4-C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) homologues from 1951 to 2030, part II: the remaining pieces of the puzzle

Research output: Journal contributionsJournal articlesResearchpeer-review

Standard

Global emission inventories for C4-C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) homologues from 1951 to 2030, part II : the remaining pieces of the puzzle. / Wang, Zhanyun; Cousins, Ian T; Scheringer, Martin et al.

In: Environmental international, Vol. 69, 01.08.2014, p. 166-176.

Research output: Journal contributionsJournal articlesResearchpeer-review

Harvard

APA

Vancouver

Bibtex

@article{c55e432a97504cd1b36c3c28b89b7c51,
title = "Global emission inventories for C4-C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) homologues from 1951 to 2030, part II: the remaining pieces of the puzzle",
abstract = "We identify eleven emission sources of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) that have not been discussed in the past. These sources can be divided into three groups: [i] PFCAs released as ingredients or impurities, e.g., historical and current use of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and their derivatives; [ii] PFCAs formed as degradation products, e.g., atmospheric degradation of some hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrofluoroethers (HFEs); and [iii] sources from which PFCAs are released as both impurities and degradation products, e.g., historical and current use of perfluorobutane sulfonyl fluoride (PBSF)- and perfluorohexane sulfonyl fluoride (PHxSF)-based products. Available information confirms that these sources were active in the past or are still active today, but due to a lack of information, it is not yet possible to quantify emissions from these sources. However, our review of the available information on these sources shows that some of the sources may have been significant in the past (e.g., the historical use of PFBA-, PFHxA-, PBSF- and PHxSF-based products), whereas others can be significant in the long-term (e.g., (bio)degradation of various side-chain fluorinated polymers where PFCA precursors are chemically bound to the backbone). In addition, we summarize critical knowledge and data gaps regarding these sources as a basis for future research.",
keywords = "Chemistry, Carboxylic Acids, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Pollutants, Fluorocarbons, History, 20th Century, History, 21st Century, Humans",
author = "Zhanyun Wang and Cousins, {Ian T} and Martin Scheringer and Buck, {Robert C} and Konrad Hungerb{\"u}hler",
note = "Copyright {\textcopyright} 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
year = "2014",
month = aug,
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.envint.2014.04.006",
language = "English",
volume = "69",
pages = "166--176",
journal = "Environmental international",
issn = "0160-4120",
publisher = "Pergamon Press",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Global emission inventories for C4-C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) homologues from 1951 to 2030, part II

T2 - the remaining pieces of the puzzle

AU - Wang, Zhanyun

AU - Cousins, Ian T

AU - Scheringer, Martin

AU - Buck, Robert C

AU - Hungerbühler, Konrad

N1 - Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PY - 2014/8/1

Y1 - 2014/8/1

N2 - We identify eleven emission sources of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) that have not been discussed in the past. These sources can be divided into three groups: [i] PFCAs released as ingredients or impurities, e.g., historical and current use of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and their derivatives; [ii] PFCAs formed as degradation products, e.g., atmospheric degradation of some hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrofluoroethers (HFEs); and [iii] sources from which PFCAs are released as both impurities and degradation products, e.g., historical and current use of perfluorobutane sulfonyl fluoride (PBSF)- and perfluorohexane sulfonyl fluoride (PHxSF)-based products. Available information confirms that these sources were active in the past or are still active today, but due to a lack of information, it is not yet possible to quantify emissions from these sources. However, our review of the available information on these sources shows that some of the sources may have been significant in the past (e.g., the historical use of PFBA-, PFHxA-, PBSF- and PHxSF-based products), whereas others can be significant in the long-term (e.g., (bio)degradation of various side-chain fluorinated polymers where PFCA precursors are chemically bound to the backbone). In addition, we summarize critical knowledge and data gaps regarding these sources as a basis for future research.

AB - We identify eleven emission sources of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) that have not been discussed in the past. These sources can be divided into three groups: [i] PFCAs released as ingredients or impurities, e.g., historical and current use of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and their derivatives; [ii] PFCAs formed as degradation products, e.g., atmospheric degradation of some hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrofluoroethers (HFEs); and [iii] sources from which PFCAs are released as both impurities and degradation products, e.g., historical and current use of perfluorobutane sulfonyl fluoride (PBSF)- and perfluorohexane sulfonyl fluoride (PHxSF)-based products. Available information confirms that these sources were active in the past or are still active today, but due to a lack of information, it is not yet possible to quantify emissions from these sources. However, our review of the available information on these sources shows that some of the sources may have been significant in the past (e.g., the historical use of PFBA-, PFHxA-, PBSF- and PHxSF-based products), whereas others can be significant in the long-term (e.g., (bio)degradation of various side-chain fluorinated polymers where PFCA precursors are chemically bound to the backbone). In addition, we summarize critical knowledge and data gaps regarding these sources as a basis for future research.

KW - Chemistry

KW - Carboxylic Acids

KW - Environmental Monitoring

KW - Environmental Pollutants

KW - Fluorocarbons

KW - History, 20th Century

KW - History, 21st Century

KW - Humans

U2 - 10.1016/j.envint.2014.04.006

DO - 10.1016/j.envint.2014.04.006

M3 - Journal articles

C2 - 24861268

VL - 69

SP - 166

EP - 176

JO - Environmental international

JF - Environmental international

SN - 0160-4120

ER -