Degradable magnesium-hydroxyapatite interpenetrating phase composites processed by current assisted metal infiltration in additive-manufactured porous preforms

Research output: Journal contributionsJournal articlesResearch


  • Mariano Casas-Luna
  • Edgar B. Montufar
  • Norbert Hort
  • Sebastian Díaz-de-la-Torre
  • José Claudio Méndez-García
  • Lucie Vištejnová
  • Adam Brínek
  • Aleš Daňhel
  • Karel Dvořak
  • Jozef Kaiser
  • Ladislav Čelko
This work explores ceramic additive manufacturing in combination with liquid metal infiltration for the production of degradable interpenetrating phase magnesium/hydroxyapatite (Mg/HA) composites. Material extrusion additive manufacturing was used to produce stoichiometric, and calcium deficient HA preforms with a well-controlled open pore network, allowing the customization of the topological relationship of the composite. Pure Mg and two different Mg alloys were used to infiltrate the preforms by means of an advanced liquid infiltration method inspired by spark plasma sintering, using a novel die design to avoid the structural collapse of the preform. Complete infiltration was achieved in 8 min, including the time for the Mg melting. The short processing time enabled to restrict the decomposition of HA due to the reducing capacity of liquid Mg. The pure Mg-base composites showed compressive yield strength above pure Mg in cast state. Mg alloy-based composites did not show higher strength than the bare alloys due to grain coarsening, but showed similar mechanical properties than other Mg/HA composites that have significantly higher fraction of metallic phase. The composites showed faster degradation rate under simulated body conditions than the bare metallic component due to the formation of galvanic pairs at microstructural level. Mg dissolved preferentially over HA leaving behind a scaffold after a prolonged degradation period. In turn, the fast production of soluble degradation products caused cell metabolic changes after 24 h of culture with not-diluted material extracts. The topological optimization and reduction of the degradation rate are the topics for future research.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Magnesium and Alloys
Issue number12
Pages (from-to)3641-3656
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - 01.12.2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Czech Science Foundation (grant 19-22662S). CzechNanoLab project LM2018110 funded by MEYS CR is gratefully acknowledged for the support of the measurements at CEITEC Nano Research Infrastructure. MCL acknowledges to Brno Ph.D. Talent scholarship and to the Brno University of Technology Internal Project: CEITEC VUT-J-19-5915. SDT acknowledges to CONACYT-SNI and SIP-IPN (SAPPI 20220438). LV acknowledges to project no. NU20-08-00150 (MH, Czechia). Special thanks to A. Patiño-Pineda from CIITEC-IPN for their technical assistance during CAMI, M. Horynová, P. Gejdoš, P. Skarvada and T. Zikmund from CEITEC-BUT for their technical assistance during sample characterization and to Z. Pavlousková from CEITEC-BUT for her assistance in administrative tasks.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022

    Research areas

  • Interpenetrating phase composite, Biodegradable metal, Topological relationship, Direct ink writing, Metal infiltration, Computed aided design
  • Engineering