Short-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins in Zurich, Switzerland: Atmospheric Concentrations and Emissions

Publikation: Beiträge in ZeitschriftenZeitschriftenaufsätzeForschung


  • Pascal S. Diefenbacher
  • Christian Bogdal
  • Andreas C. Gerecke
  • Juliane Glüge
  • Peter Schmid
  • Martin Scheringer
  • Konrad Hungerbühler
Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are of concern due to their potential for adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, persistence, and long-range transport. Data on concentrations of SCCPs in urban areas and underlying emissions are still scarce. In this study, we investigated the levels and spatial distribution of SCCPs in air, based on two separate, spatially resolved sampling campaigns in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. SCCP concentrations in air ranged from 1.8 to 17 ng·m–3 (spring 2011) and 1.1 to 42 ng·m–3 (spring 2013) with medians of 4.3 and 2.7 ng·m–3, respectively. Both data sets show that atmospheric SCCP levels in Zurich can vary substantially and may be influenced by a number of localized sources within this urban area. Additionally, continuous measurements of atmospheric concentrations performed at one representative sampling site in the city center from 2011 to 2013 showed strong seasonal variations with high SCCP concentrations in summer and lower levels in winter. A long-term dynamic multimedia environmental fate model was parametrized to simulate the seasonal trends of SCCP concentrations in air and to back-calculate urban emissions. Resulting annual SCCP emissions in the city of Zurich accounted for 218–321 kg, which indicates that large SCCP stocks are present in urban areas of industrialized countries.
ZeitschriftEnvironmental Science & Technology
Seiten (von - bis)9778 - 9786
Anzahl der Seiten9
PublikationsstatusErschienen - 18.08.2015