Air-sea exchange fluxes of synthetic polycyclic musks in the North Sea and the Arctic

Publikation: Beiträge in ZeitschriftenZeitschriftenaufsätzeForschungbegutachtet


Synthetic polycyclic musk fragrances Galaxolide (HHCB) and Tonalide (AHTN) were measured simultaneously in air and seawater in the Arctic and the North Sea and in the rural air of northern Germany. Median concentrations of gasphase HHCB and AHTN were 4 and 18 pg M-3 in the Arctic, 28 and 18 pg M-3 in the North Sea, and 71 and 21 pg M-3 in northern Germany, respectively. Various ratios of HHCB/AHTN implied that HHCB is quickly removed by atmospheric degradation, while AHTN is relatively persistent in the atmosphere. Dissolved concentrations ranged from 12 to 2030 pg L-1 for HHCB and from below the method detection limit (3 pg L-1) to 965 pg L-1 for AHTN with median values of 59 and 23 pg L-1, respectively. The medians of volatilization fluxes for HHCB and AHTN were 27.2 and 14.2 ng M-2 day(-1) and the depositional fluxes were 5.9 and 3.3 ng M-2 day(-1) , respectively, indicating waterto-air volatilization is a significant process to eliminate HHCB and AHTN from the North Sea. In the Arctic, deposition fluxes dominated the air-sea gas exchange of HHCB and AHTN, suggesting atmospheric input controls the levels of HHCB and AHTN in the polar region.
ZeitschriftEnvironmental Science & Technology
Seiten (von - bis)5654-5659
Anzahl der Seiten6
PublikationsstatusErschienen - 15.08.2007