Two-pass friction stir welding of cladded API X65

Research output: Journal contributionsConference article in journalResearchpeer-review


  • Cleber Rodrigo de Lima Lessa
  • Renan Mensch Landell
  • Luciano Bergmann
  • Jorge Fernandez dos Santos
  • Carlos Eduardo Fortis Kwietniewski
  • Afonso Reguly
  • Benjamin Klusemann

Cladded materials are used by the oil and gas industry due to the combination of good mechanical properties and low cost of high-strength low-alloy steel (HSLA) API 5L X65 with the excellent corrosion resistance of the Inconel 625. This combination of materials are specially used on rigid risers, where aggressive substances such as organic acids, carbon dioxide and H2S are present inside the pipeline. Conventional arc welding processes bring typically several issues, such as long welding times, melting of the involved materials, Fe dilution inside the weld metal (generally Inconel 625) and brittle phase precipitation. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) joints can produce better mechanical properties and lower tensile residual stresses when compared with conventional arc welding processes, having at the same time greater reproducibility and control of process parameters. Thus, a two-pass FSW process on 7mm cladded API 5L X65 HSLA steel plates were analyzed, the first pass of the process consisted in welding a 4mm API 5L X65 steel layer while the second pass consists of joining the 3mm Inconel 625 layer. Detailed hardness and microstructural analysis were performed. Correlation with the underlying physical mechanisms are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
JournalProcedia Manufacturing
Pages (from-to)1010-1015
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 01.05.2020
Event23rd International Conference on Material Forming - 2020 - online, Cottbus, Germany
Duration: 04.05.202008.05.2020
Conference number: 23

Bibliographical note

Funding Information: The authors would like to thank the financial support given by National Council for Research and Development (CNPq), Shell Brasil Petróleo Ltda, Nacional Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuel (ANP - Commitment to investment in Research and Development) and the DAAD from funds of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) under project number 57446973. Renan Mensch Landell received support from CNPq via project number 205724/2017-5 and Cleber Rodrigo de Lima Lessa received financial support of CAPES PROBRAL- 88881.198810/2018-01.

Publisher Copyright: © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 23rd International Conference on Material Forming.

    Research areas

  • Engineering - API X65, Cladded Plate, Dissimilar Welding, Friction Stir Welding, Inconel 625