Co-Shaping an Ecosystem for Responsible AI: Five Types of Expectation Work in Response to a Technological Frame

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Governing artificial intelligence (AI) requires cooperation, although the collaboration’s form remains unclear. Technological frames provide a theoretical perspective for understanding how actors interpret a technology and act upon its development, use, and governance. However, we know little about how actors shape technological frames. In this paper, we study the shaping of the technological frame of the European ecosystem for responsible AI (RAI). Through an analysis of EU documents, we identified four expectations that constitute the EU’s technological frame for the RAI ecosystem. Moreover, through interviews with RAI actors, we revealed five types of expectation work responding to this frame: reproducing, translating, and extending (congruent expectation work), and scrutinizing and rooting (incongruent expectation work). Furthermore, we conceptualize expectation work as actors’ purposive actions in creating and negotiating expectations. Our study contributes to the literature on technological frames, technology-centered ecosystems, and RAI while also elucidating the dimensions and co-shaping of technological frames.
Original languageEnglish
JournalInformation Systems Frontiers
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)103-121
Number of pages19
Publication statusPublished - 02.2023

Bibliographical note

The research was conducted in the Artificial Intelligence Governance and Auditing (AIGA) project funded by Business Finland. Open Access funding provided by University of Turku (UTU) including Turku University Central Hospital.

    Research areas

  • Business informatics - artificial intelligence, AI, Artificial intelligence governance, ecosystems, technological frames, expectations