Brominated flame retardants and dechlorane plus in the marine atmosphere from Southeast Asia toward Antarctica

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The occurrence, distribution, and temperature dependence in the marine atmosphere of several alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs), Dechlorane Plus (DP) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were investigated during a sampling cruise from the East Indian Archipelago toward the Indian Ocean and further to the Southern Ocean. Elevated concentrations were observed over the East Indian Archipelago, especially of the non-PBDE BFR hexabromobenzene (HBB) with concentrations up to 26 pg m-3 which were found to be related to continental air masses from the East Indian Archipelago. Other alternative BFRs- pentabromotoulene (PBT), pentabromobenzene (PBBz), and 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE)-were elevated, too, with concentrations up to 2.8, 4.3, and 2.3 pg m-3, respectively. DP was detected from 0.26 to 11 pg m-3 and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)- tetrabromophthalate (TBPH) ranged from not detected (nd) to 2.8 pg m -3, respectively. PBDEs ranged from nd to 6.6 pg m-3 (∑10PBDEs) with the highest individual concentrations for BDE-209. The approach of Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) plots indicates that HBB is dominated by long-range atmospheric transport at lower temperatures over the Indian and Southern Ocean, while volatilization processes and additional atmospheric emissions dominate at higher temperatures. In contrast, BDE-28 and -47 are dominated by long-range transport without fresh emissions over the entire cruise transect and temperature range, indicating limited fresh emissions of the meanwhile classic PBDEs.

ZeitschriftEnvironmental Science & Technology
Seiten (von - bis)3141-3148
Anzahl der Seiten8
PublikationsstatusErschienen - 20.03.2012