Ciprofloxacin in Hospital Effluent: Degradation by Ozone and Photoprocesses

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There are several papers in the literature that have recorded satisfactory results for the degradation of different pharmaceuticals in aqueous solutions by means of oxidation processes; however, only a few of them relied on real samples in carrying out their investigations. This study examines the results of the performance of photo-induced oxidation, heterogeneous photocatalysis, ozonation and peroxone in degrading the fluoroquinolone antimicrobial ciprofloxacin (CIP) in a hospital effluent. The real samples were collected from the treatment system of the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM). Liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) was used to monitor the decrease of the CIP concentration. As expected, photo-induced oxidation was much slower than the other processes in bringing about total CIP degradation. Both heterogeneous photocatalysis and peroxone led to almost complete CIP degradation after 60 min treatment. Ozonation showed the best performance: total degradation after 30 min treatment. This was an unexpected result in view of the greater capacity of the other two processes to generate hydroxyl radicals. However, this finding supports a result in the literature that has tended to be overlooked. The by-products formed during the application of the processes were found to be very similar. Moreover, on the basis of the data obtained from the literature, there is some evidence to suggest that the by-products are derived from the oxidation of the piperazine group. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Issue number1-3
Pages (from-to)1154-1158
Number of pages5
Publication statusPublished - 30.09.2009
Externally publishedYes

    Research areas

  • Chemistry - Anti-Infective Agents, Ciprofloxacin, Environmental Remediation, Fluoroquinolones, Hospitals, Ozone, Photochemical Processes