Oxidation-coagulation of β-blockers by K2Fe(VI)O4 in hospital wastewater: Assessment of degradation products and biodegradability

Publikation: Beiträge in ZeitschriftenZeitschriftenaufsätzeForschungbegutachtet


This study investigated the degradation of atenolol, metoprolol and propranolol beta-blockers by ferrate (K 2FeO 4) in hospital wastewater and in aqueous solution. In the case of hospital wastewater, the effect of the independent variables pH and [Fe(VI)] was evaluated by means of response surface methodology. The results showed that Fe(VI) plays an important role in the oxidation-coagulation process, and the treatment of the hospital wastewater led to degradations above 90% for all the three β-blockers, and to reductions of aromaticity that were close to 60%. In addition, only 17% of the organic load was removed. In aqueous solution, the degradation of the β-blockers atenolol, metoprolol and propranolol was 71.7%, 24.7% and 96.5%, respectively, when a ratio of 1:10 [β-blocker]:[Fe(VI)] was used. No mineralization was achieved, which suggests that there was a conversion of the β-blockers to degradation products identified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry tandem. Degradation pathways were proposed, which took account of the role of Fe(VI). Furthermore, the ready biodegradability of the post-process samples was evaluated by using the closed bottle test, and showed an increase in biodegradability. The use of the ferrate advanced oxidation technology seems to be a useful means of ensuring the remediation of hospital and similar wastewater.

ZeitschriftThe Science of The Total Environment
Seiten (von - bis)137-147
Anzahl der Seiten11
PublikationsstatusErschienen - 01.05.2013