Leverage points and levers of inclusive conservation in protected areas

Publikation: Beiträge in ZeitschriftenZeitschriftenaufsätzeForschungbegutachtet


  • Miguel A. Cebrián-Piqueras
  • Ignacio Palomo
  • Veronica B. Lo
  • María D. López-Rodríguez
  • Anna Filyushkina
  • Marie Fischborn
  • Christopher M. Raymond
  • Tobias Plieninger

Inclusive conservation approaches that effectively conserve biodiversity while improving human well-being are gaining traction in the face of the sixth mass extinction of biodiversity. Despite much theorization on the governance of inclusive conservation, empirical research on its practical implementation is urgently needed. Here, using a correlation network analysis and drawing on empirical results from 263 sites described on the web platform of the PANORAMA initiative (IUCN), we inductively identified global clusters of conservation outcomes in protected and conserved areas. These clusters represent five conservation foci or archetypes, namely (i) community-based conservation, (ii) sustainable management, (iii) conflict resolution, (iv) multi-level and co-governance, and (v) environmental protection and nature’s contribution to people. Our empirical approach further revealed that some dimensions of inclusive conservation are crucial as leverage points to manage protected areas related to these clusters successfully, namely improvements in the socio-cultural context and social cohesion, enhancing the status and participation of youth, women, and minorities, improved human health, empowerment of local communities, or reestablishment of dialogue and trust. We highlight inclusive interventions such as education and capacity building, development of alliances and partnerships, and enabling sustainable livelihoods, or governance arrangements led by Indigenous peoples and local communities or private actors, as levers to promote positive transformations in the social-ecological systems of protected areas. We argue that although some of the leverage points we identified are less targeted in current protected area management, they can represent powerful areas of intervention to enhance social and ecological outcomes in protected areas.

ZeitschriftEcology and Society
Anzahl der Seiten18
PublikationsstatusErschienen - 10.2023

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