Tourists’ valuation of nature in protected areas: A systematic review

Research output: Journal contributionsScientific review articlesResearch


In the face of biodiversity loss, it is crucial to broaden the arguments for conservation of protected areas by acknowledging diverse values of nature. We systematically reviewed empirical studies to investigate tourists’ values of nature in protected areas over time and across regions. To do so, we explored (1) the main ecological and social characteristics of the case studies; (2) methodological approaches; and (3) value types. Based on the review of 152 articles, we found that economic valuation has received the most scientific attention, while socio-cultural valuation approaches have recently increased. Values were primarily elicited and analyzed quantitatively and in monetary metrics, although valuation methods and frameworks have diversified over the past two decades. However, considering the role of valuation methods and frameworks as value-articulating institutions, we suggest that future research on nature valuation also applies qualitative and non-monetary methods, elicits diverse values, and conducts plural valuation.
Original languageEnglish
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)1065-1084
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - 06.2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work has benefited from funds from DFG project Kili-SES SP3 MA 7670/2-1. Special thanks to those who reviewed and provided thorough as well as encouraging comments on earlier versions of this manuscript, particularly the two reviewers.

Funding Information:
Open Access funding enabled and organized by Projekt DEAL. Funding was provided by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Grant No. MA 7670/2-1, MA 7670/2-1, MA 7670/2-1, MA 7670/2-1).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s).

    Research areas

  • Instrumental value, Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), Intrinsic value, Relational value, The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB), Total Economic Value (TEV)