The Lumpiness of German Exports and Imports of Goods

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This paper looks at a hitherto neglected extensive margin of international trade by investigating for the first time the frequency at which German exporters and importers trade a given good with a given country. Imports and exports show a high degree of lumpiness. In a given year about half of all firm-good-country combinations are recorded only once or twice for trade with EU-countries, and this is the case for more than 60 percent of all firm-good-country combinations in trade with non-EU countries. The frequency of recorded transactions tends to decline with an increase in the number of transactions per year. This is in accordance with the presence of per-shipment fixed costs that provide an incentive for trading firms to engage in cross-border transactions infrequently. Empirical models show that for Germany the frequency of transactions at the firm-good-country level tends to decrease with an increase in per-shipment costs when unobserved firm and goods characteristics are controlled for.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2016-21
Pages (from-to)1-38
Number of pages38
Publication statusPublished - 30.08.2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Author(s) 2016.

    Research areas

  • Economics - Exports, Germany, Imports, Lumpiness of trade