Regulatory challenges and opportunities for collective renewable energy prosumers in the EU

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  • Inês Campos
  • Guilherme Pontes Luz
  • Esther Marín González
  • Swantje Gährs
  • Stephen Hall
  • Lars Holstenkamp

The transition to a low-carbon future based on renewable energy sources is leading to a new role for citizens, from passive energy consumers to active energy citizens - the so-called renewable energy (RE) prosumers. Recent EU energy policy seeks to mainstream RE prosumers in each Member State. This study carries out a cross-country comparison between the regulatory frameworks of nine countries and regions - Belgium (Flanders region only), Croatia, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Netherlands and the United Kingdom - to reveal the main challenges and opportunities that these have posed to collective RE prosumers (i.e. renewable energy communities, citizen energy communities and jointly-acting renewable self-consumers). Four countries have had more favourable frameworks for collective prosumers: France, Germany, Netherlands and United Kingdom. The results indicate that the current legal framework at the EU level represents a clear opportunity for collective prosumers. Spain and Portugal have both already shifted from a restrictive regulation to implementing in 2019 a legal framework for collectives. The study provides a starting point to distil policy implications for improving legal frameworks relevant for collective RES prosumers across Europe.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111212
JournalEnergy Policy
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 01.03.2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement Nr 764056. The sole responsibility for the content of this document lies with the authors. It does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the funding authorities. The funding authorities are not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Authors

    Research areas

  • Citizen energy communities, Collective RE prosumers, Cross-country comparison, Regulatory frameworks, Renewable energy communities
  • Management studies